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Sampling – The process of digitizing analog information to identify relevant information.
Scan – Converting a hard copy document to a digital image using a scanner.
Searching – The ability to look within the data and search by a name, date, or keyword to find desired information.
Sector – Bits and bytes make it possible for computers to perform computations and to store data and, for efficiency purposes, bytes are stored on disks in blocks of data called sectors, with most computer systems relying upon a sector size of 512 bytes of data (4096 bits). The sector is the smallest unit of storage on a computer storage device and is generally a power of 2 bytes in size.
Sectors are created and mapped when the computer storage device is low level formatted and are written consecutively to disks on tracks. As the sector is created and written to the disk, the storage media is verified for accuracy with this verification process involving the writing of 512 bytes (4096 bits) of
data to disk.
Sector Gap – Sectors consist of fixed blocks of storage space that usually contain 512 bytes of data. An equal number of sectors are written to each track on a floppy diskette, hard disk drive, and most storage devices, however, the circumference of the outside tracks is much larger than the circumference of the inside tracks. For this reason, much of the storage space is wasted on some storage devices, however, modern hard disk drives have eliminated much of this waste through the use of advanced data storage mapping techniques. In addition, on some storage devices the area between sectors on the larger tracks can be used for covert data storage and this area is referred to as sector gap.
Server – A computer or device on a network that possesses data or applications shared by the network's users.
Sequence Checking – A verification of the alphanumeric sequence of the "key" field in items to be processed.
Slack Space – A type of data stored on a hard drive that often contains deleted and fragmented data.
Software – Programs that allow a computer to perform necessary work.
Spoliation – Generally, the intentional or negligent destruction or alteration of evidence when there is current litigation or an investigation or there is reasonable anticipation that either may occur in the near future. Some jurisdictions also define it as a failure to preserve information that may become evidence.
Stand Alone Computer – A single computer not connected to a network
System Registry – The system configuration files used by Microsoft Windows to store settings about user preferences, installed software, hardware and drivers, and other settings required for Windows to run correctly.